Temperature profile snapshot through
the first 20cm below the sand surface (horizontal dashed line) recorded
in March 2011. The ordinate is depth in mm, and the abscissa is
temperature in C. Circles represent measurements, with symbol size
equal to actual sensor diameter. The thick red line is the prediction
of our 1D thermal model. The dashed and solid blue lines correspond to
the uncertainty range for measured shear velocity. The blue horizontal
arrow and orange thermometer show, respectively, wind speed and ambient
temperature. The lower bar marks progression over the nearly two days
of this experiment, with orange segments between sunrise and sunset.
Time is legal Qatar time (UT+3 hours). The left and right
vertical arrows indicate measured net radiation and calculated thermal
convection fluxes, respectively, counted positive into the dune. For
each image, we also display the root-mean-square error between
measurement and model over all 15 sensors.